X-Ray Properties of the Elements

Element (symbol or Z value): at Energy (eV): (30 eV < E < 30,000 eV).

Explanation of Tables

Atomic Properties

Material Properties

Electron binding energies

The energies are given for the elements in their natural forms relative to the vacuum level for the rare gases and for H2, N2, O2, F2, and Cl2, relative to the Fermi level for metals and the top of the valence bands for semiconductors. The values have been taken from the following references:
  1. J. A. Bearden and A. F. Burr Rev. Mod. Phys. 39, 125 (1967).
  2. M. Cardona and L. Ley, Eds. Photoemission in Solids I. General Principles (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1978).
  3. J. C. Fuggle and N. Martensson, J. Electron Spectrosc. Relat. Phenom. 21, 275 (1980).
  4. unpublished.
  5. S. Kraft, J. Stumpel, P. Becker, U. Kuetgens, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 67, 681 (1996).
(Revised from original compilation by Gwyn Williams in the CXRO data booklet.)

Electron Energy Level Widths

The natural widths of the atomic energy levels taken from:
  1. M.O. Krause and J.H. Oliver, J. Phys. Chem. Ref. Data 8, 329 (1979).