X-Ray Properties of the Elements
Explanation of Tables
- Atomic Weight values from NIST compilation of Atomic Weights of the Elements 1997.
- Photoabsorption Cross Section in cm^2/g.
- Inelastic Scattering Cross Section in cm^2/g.
See J.H. Hubbell, W.J. Veigele, E.A. Briggs, R.T. Brown, D.T. Cromer,
and R.J. Howerton,
J. Phys. Chem. Ref. Data 4, 471-538 (1975); erratum in 6, 615-616 (1977).
- f1 = The real part of the atomic scattering factor.
- f2 = The imaginary part of the atomic scattering factor.
- Density of the element in its naturally occuring form.
- The index of refraction is n=1-delta-i(beta).
- Attenuation length = 1/(µ *density) where µ is the
sum of the atomic photoabsorption and inelastic scattering cross sections.
- The critical angle for total external reflection is
given by sqrt(2delta).
Electron binding energies
The energies are given for the elements in their natural forms relative
to the vacuum level for the rare gases and for H2, N2, O2, F2, and Cl2,
relative to the Fermi level for metals and the top of the valence bands for
The values have been taken from the following references:
(Revised from original compilation by Gwyn Williams in the CXRO data booklet.)
- J. A. Bearden and A. F. Burr Rev. Mod. Phys. 39, 125 (1967).
- M. Cardona and L. Ley, Eds. Photoemission in Solids I.
General Principles (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1978).
- J. C. Fuggle and N. Martensson, J. Electron Spectrosc. Relat.
Phenom. 21, 275 (1980).
- S. Kraft, J. Stumpel, P. Becker, U. Kuetgens, Rev. Sci. Instrum.
67, 681 (1996).
Electron Energy Level Widths
The natural widths of the atomic energy levels taken from:
- M.O. Krause and J.H. Oliver, J. Phys. Chem. Ref. Data 8, 329 (1979).